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Maarten Janssen, 2014-


[1700-1709]. Carta de Manuela Ramos, beata de Nuestra Señora del Monte Carmelo, para fray Francisco Fernández y Villegas, religioso de Nuestra Señora del Monte Carmelo.

Author(s) Manuela Ramos      
Addressee(s) Francisco Fernández y Villegas      
In English

Letter from Manuela Ramos, blessed of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, to Fray Francisco Fernández y Villegas, religious of Our Lady of Mount Carmel.

The author explains to Fray Francisco Fernández y Villegas the "divine love" she feels towards him.

Following an accusation of alumbrados, dishonesty and having been imbued in the errors of Molinos, a process occurred between 1708 and 1711 against Manuela Ramos, alias Manuela Sánchez or Manuela de Santa Leocadia. Manuela Ramos was born in Novés (Toledo) in 1679 and had a Catholic upbringing. She declared herself Old Christian and a descendant of Old Christians. She lost her mother at age eleven and she moved to Illescas (Toledo) where she began to serve in a convent of the Concepción Francisca. After five years her father died and her brother had her transferred to Santa Isabel convent in Toledo where she learned to read and write. She was devoted to Our Lady of Mount Carmel and had as a confessor Fray Manuel de Santa Leocadia from 1700 to 1704, a Discalced Carmelite who also lived at the convent. In November 1704 Manuela moved to Madrid for three months in order to flee the harassment and threats of a carpenter named Francisco who wanted to marry her. During her time in Madrid, she stayed in Diego de las Cuevas´ house and had as her confessor Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas, a Discalced Carmelite and Prior of Valdemoro. She married Blas Martín Pingarrón in Toledo in 1707.

During the Holy Office´s process against her, she was tried for heresy, alumbradismo and dishonesty. Specifically, she was accused of: faking visions and divine revelations; premarital relations; and an unlawful carnal knowledge with her confessor, Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas. 48 letters (PS6143-PS6191) were provided to the process and used as incriminating evidences for the aforementioned crimes. The letters are sewn together in a notebook attached to the documentation of the process. Inside this notebook two epistolary collections can be distinguished: 18 letters written by Blas Martín Pingarrón and addressed to Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas, and 28 letters written by Manuela Ramos and addressed to Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas. There is also a letter signed by Diego del Amor, alias Diego de las Cuevas, and another one from Cristobal de Alfaro (PS6164) to Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas. There is also a copy of a letter from Pedro Pablo Díez, an apothecary from Yepes, to Manuela Ramos (PS6178). Within the process, two other letters which do not appear in the notebook and addressed to Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas are mentioned: one of them written by Fray Francisco Salazar, a Carmelite from Valdemoro convent, and another one written by Manuela Ramos.

Regarding Blas Martín Pingarrón’s letters, he admitted they were his and in his confession to the Holy Office he explained the reason why he had written them. Villegas frequently visited Manuela Ramos in Toledo because of her visions and hallucinations and asked to be informed about her in his absence. Therefore, the letters from Blas Martín Pingarrón were "basically to tell Villegas of how Manuela Ramos was being tormented by the devil and of her visions" (f. 188r). The correspondence between Blas Martín Pingarrón and Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas took place approximately from 1706 to 1707 and its content was used as incriminating evidence to prove that either Manuela Ramos or Villegas were "deluded, deceiver, hypocrite and feigner of supernatural favours" (f. 231r). In the letters, Blas Martín Pingarrón used to sign as "Baptista" and refer to Manuela Ramos as "M" or as "Rosa".

Regarding Manuela Ramos’ letters, she did not admit to being their author in her confession to the Holy Office. Instead, she argued they were written by a María Basagutia, with whom the defendant had lived for a while in Toledo. During the process, this statement was proved to be false and it was also proved that the letters belonged to Manuela Ramos. She was accused of trying to deceive the Court by changing her handwriting: "[...] neither is less worthy of reflection the changing variety of handwriting which the defendant tries to deceive us with (although unsuccessfully) since she has proved many times this handwriting is hers. She may have thought that she could scape blame for being the author of the letters by deceiving this tribunal into thinking it was not her handwriting. Nevertheless, before she was arrested she recognised that the signatures on the documents and denouncements were hers. On these documents the capital letters found in the signatures indicate she writes with great agility. After she was imprisoned and being suspicious over the use of the letters as exhibits, she began to simulate different handwritings in the signatures of the hearings. She was trying to demonstrate clumsiness and difficulty either in the sluggishness she was signing on or the hesitation about whether or not would be able to begin with capital letters" (f. 557r-v)." These suspicions, together with the opinion of four handwriting experts, show that Manuela Ramos is the author. The correspondence between Manuela Ramos and Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas was exchanged approximately from 1704 to 1706 and it was used as incriminating evidence to prove their relationship was not just spiritual. Some of the reasons to believe so were the following ones: there were crosses and zeros representing kisses and hugs in many of the letters; the cautious way they were writing, withholding their names and; lastly, some of the treatment formulas they employed (for instance: my soul´s husband). Manuela Ramos used to sign her letters as "Manuela de Santa Leocadia" or "Manuela Bautista".

Ultimately, the content of the letters filed in the process documentation were used as exhibit not only to prove that the relationship between Manuela Ramos and Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas did not reflect "a spiritual love, on the contrary [...] it was human love, sensitive and very close to the sensuality, which probably was, and at least very dangerous and leading to spiritual ruin against honesty" (f. 231r); but also to accuse Manuela Ramos and Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas of eluded and alumbrados.

In the trial sentence against Manuela Ramos the judgment was: the defendant should lose half of her properties; she should walk to the scaffold as a penitent, candle in hand, to publicly abjure of the errors and heresies she was accused of; she should be exiled for four years from the court of Madrid and eight leagues from the villages of Novés and Illescas; she should pass the first of those four years in prison, wearing the sanbenito, the garment of public humiliation, on her clothes.

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Padre y señor mio de mucho consuelo me sirbe cada letra q uste me escribe el señor se lo page a uste ya q yo nunca podre ser pagadora en esto ni otra cosa ninguna diceme uste en la suia que cada dia ba uste conociendo mas ser el camino q llebamos del agrado del señor no me se a ofrecido a mi racon al contrario esto se lo debemos a su magestad padre mio doi al señor las gracias por la dolcura q siente en su interior uste d este Divino amor que es con quien debemos tener todos nuestros coloquios tanbien me dice uste q conoce q en la mia esta ni yo puedo negar q esta conmigo y q yo lo estoi con su magestad pero con una lucha q antes parece q estorba el señor a q yo le pueda amar pero no lo creo esto aunq lo siento y como sabe uste q mi hanelo no es buscar gustos ni trabajos sino lo que dios quisiere y creo en esto firmemente q soi toda del señor al pesar de todo el infierno oigo en algunas ocasiones q me dicen esa tu confianca en bano es pues no acabas de desengañarte padre mio yo no ago caso porq reconosco de la parte q esta bos sale i suele sucederme en ocasion q reconosco q esta mi alma con el señor i q tanbien no apetece la bolunta otra cosa ni cielo ni infierno solo me parece q mi alma quisiera q ubiera muchos amadores d este dios i por esto me siento como sin fuercas - Padre mio e dicho esto porque estando oi con su magestad le bi con la cruz a cuestas y llagado todo su cuerpo en q me dice asi me tienen los hombres grande fue la lastima i conpasion q en mi alma a quedado y biendo q me llamaba para q le a le aconpañase me quebranto mi alma biendo la q soi padre mio prosigo todos los dias a nuestra señora del sagrario desde el sabado pasado i con tanto gusto q puedo asegurar a mi padre no tengo rato en q este mas gustosa i siendo asi q paso unas noches q el señor lo sabe pues al lebantarme parece q toda la noche a sido con gran descanso y a las seis ya estoi alla ago lo q uste me manda pidiendo a la birgen segun lo hordenado estoime con gran quietud asta las ocho e sentido todos estos dias q me abisan bete y conosco q esta señora me echa una bendicion q me enamora solo con conocerlo interiormente yo martes lo conoci mas claramente pues asta lo esterior conoci i no q era el diablo i me bengo a mi casa sin entrar mas q de paso en casa de isidro porq e cho una escusa- padre de mi alma no puedo por menos de sentir mucho y darle a uste parte de lo q su hermana de uste anda ablando de mi i de uste diciendo q desde q uste me conoce no la asiste uste con nada i q la tiene olvidada conq en el conbento de las gaitanas nuebamente me trae a mi en boca i esto por su hermana de uste dios se lo page q bien se conoce q no es muger de oracion pues q asi abla y aora con doce reales q le da el padre pinto cada semana se pondra mas humilde buena renta a menester uste i le digo a uste padre mio q si uste le da mas de seis reales cada semana no ace uste la bolunta de dios i esto lo se de buena parte y sobre lo dicho aga uste lo q gustase i por amor de dios q esto no sirba a uste de pesadumbre porq no bolvere a blar mas sobre este punto si se ofreciese nuestro señor de a uste mucho de su amor i me le dege ber i escriba uste largo porq no se mas q dos beces de uste cada semana i esto es poco de mariquita memorias

yja de uste asta morir manuela



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