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Maarten Janssen, 2014-


[1700-1709]. Carta de Manuela Ramos, beata de Nuestra Señora del Monte Carmelo, para fray Francisco Fernández y Villegas, religioso de Nuestra Señora del Monte Carmelo.

Author(s) Manuela Ramos      
Addressee(s) Francisco Fernández y Villegas      
In English

Following an accusation of alumbrados, dishonesty and having been imbued in the errors of Molinos, a process occurred between 1708 and 1711 against Manuela Ramos, alias Manuela Sánchez or Manuela de Santa Leocadia. Manuela Ramos was born in Novés (Toledo) in 1679 and had a Catholic upbringing. She declared herself Old Christian and a descendant of Old Christians. She lost her mother at age eleven and she moved to Illescas (Toledo) where she began to serve in a convent of the Concepción Francisca. After five years her father died and her brother had her transferred to Santa Isabel convent in Toledo where she learned to read and write. She was devoted to Our Lady of Mount Carmel and had as a confessor Fray Manuel de Santa Leocadia from 1700 to 1704, a Discalced Carmelite who also lived at the convent. In November 1704 Manuela moved to Madrid for three months in order to flee the harassment and threats of a carpenter named Francisco who wanted to marry her. During her time in Madrid, she stayed in Diego de las Cuevas´ house and had as her confessor Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas, a Discalced Carmelite and Prior of Valdemoro. She married Blas Martín Pingarrón in Toledo in 1707.

During the Holy Office´s process against her, she was tried for heresy, alumbradismo and dishonesty. Specifically, she was accused of: faking visions and divine revelations; premarital relations; and an unlawful carnal knowledge with her confessor, Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas. 48 letters (PS6143-PS6191) were provided to the process and used as incriminating evidences for the aforementioned crimes. The letters are sewn together in a notebook attached to the documentation of the process. Inside this notebook two epistolary collections can be distinguished: 18 letters written by Blas Martín Pingarrón and addressed to Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas, and 28 letters written by Manuela Ramos and addressed to Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas. There is also a letter signed by Diego del Amor, alias Diego de las Cuevas, and another one from Cristobal de Alfaro (PS6164) to Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas. There is also a copy of a letter from Pedro Pablo Díez, an apothecary from Yepes, to Manuela Ramos (PS6178). Within the process, two other letters which do not appear in the notebook and addressed to Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas are mentioned: one of them written by Fray Francisco Salazar, a Carmelite from Valdemoro convent, and another one written by Manuela Ramos.

Regarding Blas Martín Pingarrón’s letters, he admitted they were his and in his confession to the Holy Office he explained the reason why he had written them. Villegas frequently visited Manuela Ramos in Toledo because of her visions and hallucinations and asked to be informed about her in his absence. Therefore, the letters from Blas Martín Pingarrón were "basically to tell Villegas of how Manuela Ramos was being tormented by the devil and of her visions" (f. 188r). The correspondence between Blas Martín Pingarrón and Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas took place approximately from 1706 to 1707 and its content was used as incriminating evidence to prove that either Manuela Ramos or Villegas were "deluded, deceiver, hypocrite and feigner of supernatural favours" (f. 231r). In the letters, Blas Martín Pingarrón used to sign as "Baptista" and refer to Manuela Ramos as "M" or as "Rosa".

Regarding Manuela Ramos’ letters, she did not admit to being their author in her confession to the Holy Office. Instead, she argued they were written by a María Basagutia, with whom the defendant had lived for a while in Toledo. During the process, this statement was proved to be false and it was also proved that the letters belonged to Manuela Ramos. She was accused of trying to deceive the Court by changing her handwriting: "[...] neither is less worthy of reflection the changing variety of handwriting which the defendant tries to deceive us with (although unsuccessfully) since she has proved many times this handwriting is hers. She may have thought that she could scape blame for being the author of the letters by deceiving this tribunal into thinking it was not her handwriting. Nevertheless, before she was arrested she recognised that the signatures on the documents and denouncements were hers. On these documents the capital letters found in the signatures indicate she writes with great agility. After she was imprisoned and being suspicious over the use of the letters as exhibits, she began to simulate different handwritings in the signatures of the hearings. She was trying to demonstrate clumsiness and difficulty either in the sluggishness she was signing on or the hesitation about whether or not would be able to begin with capital letters" (f. 557r-v)." These suspicions, together with the opinion of four handwriting experts, show that Manuela Ramos is the author. The correspondence between Manuela Ramos and Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas was exchanged approximately from 1704 to 1706 and it was used as incriminating evidence to prove their relationship was not just spiritual. Some of the reasons to believe so were the following ones: there were crosses and zeros representing kisses and hugs in many of the letters; the cautious way they were writing, withholding their names and; lastly, some of the treatment formulas they employed (for instance: my soul´s husband). Manuela Ramos used to sign her letters as "Manuela de Santa Leocadia" or "Manuela Bautista".

Ultimately, the content of the letters filed in the process documentation were used as exhibit not only to prove that the relationship between Manuela Ramos and Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas did not reflect "a spiritual love, on the contrary [...] it was human love, sensitive and very close to the sensuality, which probably was, and at least very dangerous and leading to spiritual ruin against honesty" (f. 231r); but also to accuse Manuela Ramos and Fray Francisco Fernández de Villegas of eluded and alumbrados.

In the trial sentence against Manuela Ramos the judgment was: the defendant should lose half of her properties; she should walk to the scaffold as a penitent, candle in hand, to publicly abjure of the errors and heresies she was accused of; she should be exiled for four years from the court of Madrid and eight leagues from the villages of Novés and Illescas; she should pass the first of those four years in prison, wearing the sanbenito, the garment of public humiliation, on her clothes.

Letter from Manuela Ramos, blessed of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, to Fray Francisco Fernández y Villegas, religious of Our Lady of Mount Carmel.

The author thanks Fray Francisco Fernández y Villegas for his behaviour and asks him for a holy card of Santo Tomás.

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sea el santisimo sacramento alabado

Padre de mi alma y esposo de mi coracon pues el mismo señor lo a echo racon sera q yo en una carta lo diga ya se q no lo meresco q yo soi la q lo tengo de decir y mi esposo de mi alma no. Pues en cada carta biene padre mio el q uste me dice lo mucho q debo al señor en tenerme a mi por conpañera a tanto llega su humildad de usted que quiera usted darme a mi todo lo bueno y ser usted el abatido sea por amor de dios q yo reconosco en mi lo inutil q soi y lo mala i usted quiere humillarme con la mesma humildad q en uste ai padre mio pues si no fuera por la mucha caridad q en usted ai y el amor del señor confieso q esta es la causa de q usted aga caso d este ruin gusano pues no merece nada buelbo a decir padre mio q se humille uste norabuena q aqui biene bien Aquellas palablas q digo mi amado el bautista q era racon q el bagase para q subiese su señor y dios mio mi padre se humilla con esta yja pues bagese la yja y considere q a de ser humilde y digo de coracon q no meresco de besar el capato despues q este quitado de los pies de mi padre esto confieso a dios q me esta oiendo y a mi padre q lo a de ler i me da berguenca de ablar en este punto biendo la mucha soberania q en mi ai ogala no fuera asi q arto le inportara a mi alma pero enseñeme uste padre mio mas y mas no sea yo la yja querida que desparame la acienda de dios y de mi padre sin q le aproveche a mi alma dios tenga misericordia de mi y sepa yo agradecerle lo mucho q cuidad de mi en todo q debo mucho pues allo mi alma enamorada d este gran dios en una presencia suia y deretida en el mismo y parece q se sale del cuerpo i se ba con su dios i bien suio confieso padre mio q crece en mi el amor d este dios como espuma lo digo porq asi lo entiendo y aunq no lo meresco racon es q diga el q es dios para con esta pobre ingrata i no agradecida y no sienta uste padre mio el q diga q soi ingrata pues bien sabe uste lo mucho q debo y lo mal q pago quando sera aquel dia padre mio y esposo mio q yo dege de ser ruin i pues uste me dice q sabe las cosas de mi alma yo me alegro mucho pues sabe uste de la parte q adolece para pedirle al señor y a mi madre de la soleda lo q necesita es el recaudo q a mi padre doi i pues uste tiene a su quenta mi alma no tengo mas q decir. me dice uste padre mio q diga como le bi a mi esposo y padre santo tomas para traerme estanpa no sera facil q l ayga pues solo como el q esta en el cielo sera el q bio mi alma y asi padre mio como sera posible de q se tope echura semegante muchas beces me a blado el santo y me dice q le diga a uste q me traiga uno o q se lo enbie a decir y q sera cunplido mi deseo bien sabe el señor y el santo q si uste me quiere tener mortificada q me alegrare solo porq no tenga yo todos los gustos cunplidos q arto bribona soi. padre mio en quanto al mal q uste tiene me alegro mucho de q el señor sea el q ablae a usted en horden a la cura fio de su magestad q mi padre tendra alivio yo en pecado oi una nobena al santisimo sacramento y a nuestra madre porque mi padre de mi alma se megore padre mio ya conosco los muchos sermones q tendra uste i q abra mucha ocupacion pero el señor ara la costa esa carta ba de frai francisco leala uste y despues enbiesela uste al maestro a bilacerada. adios padre de mi alma yjo y esposo

mil mil yja q en dios ama a uste manuela



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